I. Original research articles (less than 3000 words, excluding the abstract and references):
Abstract: The abstract should be a concise, informative and accurate summary of the article and should be completely self-explanatory, with a word limit of 250 words. It should be structured using these headings:
3. Materials and Methods
No references should be cited in the abstract.
Keywords: Following the abstract, about 3 to 6 keywords should be listed arranged alphabetically; use standard key words in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms.
Introduction: The introduction should provide a clear statement of the problem, relevant literature on the subject,* and the proposed approach or solution. Authors should justify why this study was necessary and what it is intended to contribute to the field. The section should end with a clear statement of the aim of the study. Abbreviations and acronyms should be spelt out and introduced in parentheses the first time they are used in the text; only recommended SI units of measure should be used; UK, US or Australian spelling can be used, but a mixture of spelling styles should not be used within the same manuscript. In the text, the reference should be cited by Arabic numerals in superscript after the full stop and not within parentheses.
*While writing the manuscript, do not use other’s published and unpublished ideas, words or work without giving credit to the original authors and do not take credit for others’ work intentionally or unintentionally. Cite references meticulously for all statements that are not your own; do not use others’ words verbatim, rather paraphrase them using your own words while simultaneously citing the reference quoted; and if it is absolutely required to quote words verbatim as in the case of definitions, quote the definitions within inverted commas, while simultaneously citing the reference. Plagiarism is a serious issue and the National Journal of Physiology will not tolerate plagiarism or any scientific misconduct. Plagiarism is punishable and is easily detected using software that checks manuscripts and detects plagiarism. If a table/figure/image has been published previously, and is being reproduced anywhere in the manuscript, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce it. Only documents in the public domain are exempt. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain permission to reproduce copyright protected material from the copyright holder. Manuscripts will not be accepted unless written permission for the same is received by the authors and submitted to the editor.
Materials and Methods: This section should be complete enough to allow experiments to be reproduced. The name of the colleges should be blinded. The procedures should be described in detail and previously published procedures should be cited. For all manuscripts that report data from studies involving human participants and for animal studies, formal review and approval or waiver, by the concerned institutional review board or ethics committee is required and should be described along with the ethical guidelines followed by the investigators. Details about the study design, sample size with justification, sampling method, selection criteria, method of allocating the subjects into different groups, study groups, interventions, study tool, methods of measurement, data collection and processing and loss of data (dropouts or patients lost to follow up) should be given. Finally, the statistical methods used for presentation and analysis of data, the statistical tests used, and the software package (name and version) used for statistical analysis should be stated.
Results: The results section should be precise and clear. Exact p values should be provided. Confidence intervals for measurements should be provided wherever required. The results section should be written in the past tense. Results should be explained, without referring to the literature. Discussion, speculation and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the results but should be included in the discussion section instead. In the interest of clarity, tables and figures may be included within the results section itself.
Tables should be as simple as possible and self-explanatory. Each table should be numbered consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text using Arabic numerals and should have a heading (font size 11) and a legend/footnote (font size 8), in addition to the content (font size 10, single spaced, left aligned), to ensure that it easily fits in the final double column page layout. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph forms or repeated in the text. All nonstandard abbreviations should be placed in footnotes, using symbols to explain information, if needed, and explanatory matter should be placed in footnotes, not in the heading. Figures/graphs too should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a heading and a legend, and should include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text. While preparing graphs, keep in mind the fact that the print version of the journal would be in black and white and therefore differentiate appropriately. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high resolution GIF, TIFF or JPEG images before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text. Do not use patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers in images. Ensure that all identifying details are removed from photographs and reports.
Discussion: The discussion should interpret the findings in view of the results obtained in this and in past studies on the topic, stating how the findings are in accordance with or differ from those of other researchers. Possible mechanisms and explanations for the findings should be given. The results and discussion sections can include subheadings. Add the limitations of the study, scope for future research and the implications of the study at the end of the discussion.
Conclusion: State the conclusions in a few sentences at the end of the manuscript, ensuring that conclusions drawn are precise and based on the results obtained in the present study only, not on speculations.
References should be listed at the end of the manuscript in the order of occurrence i.e., the order in which the references appear in the text. Do not list them alphabetically. References cited only in tables or in legends of figures should be numbered according to the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure.
Do not cite personal communications, unpublished articles and manuscripts “in preparation” or manuscripts “submitted for publication” as references. The titles of the journals should be abbreviated according to the style used for MEDLINE. Use the complete name of the journal for non-indexed journals. Do not use abstracts as references.
Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of the references. Please make sure to follow the reference style precisely; if the references are not in the correct style, the manuscript will be returned. A few examples are given below, but authors are advised to refer to the ICMJE “Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly work in Medical Journals” for finding further updated sample references.
Articles in journals:
Kulkarni SB, Chitre RG, Satoskar RS, Wighe RS, Tillu KJ, Joshi PJ, et al. Serum proteins in tuberculosis. J Postgrad Med. 1960; 6:113-20.
Reference from a book:
Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, eds. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.
Chapter in a Book:
Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, eds. Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. p. 465-78.
Electronic citations/Online journals:
Basically, websites can be referenced with their URL and access date, and as much other information is given as is available. Access date is important as websites can be updated and URLs change.
Morse SS. Factors in the emergency of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis 1995 Jan-Mar;1(1).www.cdc.gov/nciod/EID/vol1no1/morse.htm (accessed 5 Jun 1998).
Harsha HC, Kandasamy K, Ranganathan P, A compendium of potential biomarkers of pancreatic cancer. PLoS Med 2009;6(4):e1000046.doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000046.
II. Review articles (less than 5000 words): Review articles and meta-analyses should be written for the basic sciences audience. They should have an abstract (up to 250 words, not structured) and references, and there is no fixed limit on the number of references.
III. Short communications /Brief reports (less than 1500 words): We encourage short papers on small but interesting findings or on creative hypotheses with strong plausibility. Short communications are limited to a maximum of two figures and one table. They should present a complete study that is more limited in scope than is found in full-length papers and should have an abstract (up to 250 words, not structured) and references.
IV. Case reports (less than 750 words, no more than 10 references):
The manuscript should have the following sections: Abstract (up to 200 words, not structured), introduction, description of the case (including figures), discussion, conclusion and references and written informed consent should have been obtained; all information that could identify the patient should be removed before submission and anonymity should be ensured.
V. Obituary/Remembrance (less than 400 words, with a photograph): The journal publishes brief memorials in honor of recently deceased physiologists in the last issue of every year. This should include a distilled combination of essential information (full name, dates of birth and death, main institutional affiliations and accomplishments) and personal anecdotes or memories.
VI. News and events section (less than 250 words for each event): The last issue of the year will contain the ‘News and events’ section. Each institution that has conducted a conference/workshop/continuing medical education (CME) programme or any other academic event in collaboration with the Association of Physiologists of Tamilnadu (APT) should submit a summary of the event (200 – 250 words) to the editor to enable a final summary of the events that occurred that year to be compiled. In addition, this section will also contain a brief list of forthcoming national and international conferences of interest to Physiologists.